Diabetes – A step closer to a Cure (Disclaimer - albeit with a very long way still to go)

2 months ago
58 in steemstem

I have just read a report in a Journal called Nature Chemical Biology (Journal Link). Not your typical bedtime reading, or daytime reading for that matter, but this article caught my eye, not so much for the catchy title: 

Synthetic beta cells for fusion-mediated dynamic insulin secretion

as for the content:

In this paper a team of researchers demonstrate how they have created synthetic cells that mimic the beta cells in the pancreas that regulate our blood sugar concentration

What this means, is that this technology could eventually lead to a cure for diabetes – this is huge!

But before we get into that let’s take a step back and go over what we are actually talking about here

What you need to know about Diabetes

Diabetes, or diabetes mellitus to be more precise, is a metabolic disorder characterized by abnormally high blood glucose levels

There are two main types, creatively named Type 1 and Type 2

  • Type 1 is caused by the pancreas not producing enough insulin, and comprises about 10% of cases
  • Type 2 is caused by the cells of the body failing to respond properly to insulin, and comprises about 90% of cases


Source

There is a third type – gestational diabetes – seen in pregnant women, but this is small in comparison – although no less significant should you suffer from it

Diabetes is a major Global Health problem...

A World Health Organization Global Report on Diabetes reported the 2016 Global prevalence of diabetes at 422 million. This is a huge number – to put it in perspective it is more than the entire combined populations of the US and Germany

... And it is becoming more significant every year

Prevalence has increased from 382 million in 2013, an annual growth rate of about 5% per year. The International Diabetes Federation estimated Global Worldwide economic cost of diabetes in 2014 to be over $600 billion – that could buy you a lot of STEEM (especially at current prices)

So what’s this insulin stuff that causes diabetes then?

Let’s talk for a minute about glucose and glucose homeostasis (the means by which the body maintains it at appropriate levels)

Glucose is a sugar which circulates in our bloodstream and is the body’s key source of energy. When you hear people talking about blood sugar levels, they are talking about blood glucose levels.  Glucose is produced in three different ways

  • Absorption into the body from consumption of food
  • Breakdown of glycogen, the form in which glucose is stored in the liver
  • The generation of glucose from the breakdown of substances such as proteins and lipids – a process known as gluconeogenesis

To understand how the body maintains appropriate levels of glucose (homeostasis) you need to know about two hormones – insulin and glucagon:

You need Insulin to lower your blood glucose levels – produced by Beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans (the pancreas is all you need to know), this hormone is released into the bloodstream in response to rising glucose levels, when it causes absorption of glucose into fat, liver and skeletal cells, and reduces glucose production and secretion by the liver

You need Glucagon to increase your blood glucose levels – produced by Alpha cells of the Islets of Langerhans (the pancreas is all you need to know), this hormone is released into the bloodstream in response to reducing glucose levels, when it causes increased glucose secretion by the liver (gluconeogenesis)


Source

When you have diabetes, as I mentioned right at the start, you either don’t produce enough insulin, or the cells of the body don’t react appropriately to it, and so you can’t reduce your blood sugar level as it starts to rise after a meal. This is dangerous

How do I know if I have diabetes?

Well, typically a patient with diabetes will present with weight loss, polyuria (increased urination) and polydipsia (increased thirst). But symptoms can also be very non-specific. A classic presentation would be a patient with non-specific symptoms who casually mentions in passing to their physician that they are drinking litres of water every day

This is what to look out for

Source

Once a diagnosis of diabetes is suspected, it is a simple matter to diagnose it via blood tests

Type 1 diabetes typically presents in patients who are otherwise healthy and of normal weight, and in most cases is autoimmune in nature

Type 2 diabetes is closely related to lifestyle, and typically presents in patients who are obese with poor diet and a lack of physical activity

It is not the symptoms of diabetes that cause the real problem, it is the complications that arise from long-term abnormal glucose homeostasis – more deaths are attributed to complications than to diabetes itself. Complications typically develop much later than the initial diagnosis, and can be thought of according to the organ/system affected

  • Vascular disease – increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke and peripheral artery disease
  • Diabetic retinopathy – visual impairment due to damage to blood vessels supplying the eye
  • Diabetic nephropathy – chronic kidney disease due to damage to blood vessels supplying the kidney
  • Diabetic neuropathy – nerve damage, including numbness, tingling and changes in sensation


Source

Damn, this sounds bad, how do we treat it?

As always, prevention is better than cure

Type 1 cannot be prevented – as it is primarily autoimmune in nature, if you get it and your Beta cells are damaged or destroyed, you are just unlucky, but there was nothing you could have done (that we know of currently)

Type 2 can be prevented, or at least delayed, by eating well, exercising and keeping your body weight within normal limits

Once diagnosed, management is focused on maintaining a normal blood glucose concentration, through

  1. Lifestyle measures - diet, exercise and weight loss
  2. Medication – insulin injections for type 1, oral medications in type 2

And of course there is a huge daily burden to the patient, in terms of continually monitoring their blood glucose via fingerprick testing, and then calculating doses of drug that needs to be given

At the moment there is no cure, and so a diagnosis means a lifetime of treatment, however long that may be. The World Health Organization estimates that diabetes at least doubles a person’s risk of an early death

So - if you avoid this:


Source

You increase your chances of avoiding this:


Source

Ok, so now I get why it’s a problem – what’s the deal with this new research paper?

If you’re feeling particularly masochistic and if you have access to the journal’s website, you can read to the entire paper here:

The Paper 

If you don’t have enough time, here’s the short answer

These researchers have created synthetic cells that mimic the actions of our natural Beta cells – remember, these are the ones that produce the insulin we need to reduce blood glucose. The synthetic cells sense blood sugar concentration and secrete just the right amount of insulin

The technology behind this is amazing – what these guys have done is to generate artificial Beta cells containing ‘packets’ full of insulin that fuse with the cell’s outer membrane and release insulin into the bloodstream when blood sugar levels are too high. As the insulin goes to work and the blood sugar level drops, the packets then unfuse from the membrane and the supply of insulin is cut off

How they have done it I have no idea, but it works, at least so far - experiments with mice show that the cells can regulate blood glucose for up to five days

The synthetic cells are not as good as the real thing, as they run out of insulin after a period of time and then have to be replenished, but they are clearly a potential advance over current treatments

Next steps are to see if these results can be translated into humans. Of course, it is entirely possible that the results are not seen inhuman trials – the history of medical research is littered with drug failures that showed huge promise in animal testing and even early human testing, but which then failed to demonstrate efficacy in large scale pre-registration studies

But if they can show that this works in humans, then we move into a place whereby diabetic patients could inject these artificial beta cells and automatically regulate their blood sugar levels for days at a time. The ability to deliver real time accurate automated blood glucose regulation is a huge step forward when compared to current regimens that typically involve blood glucose measurements and injections several times per day

There is a long way to go – this technology has never been tested in humans – but diabetes is one of the biggest health problems the world faces – moving a step nearer to a cure is a great thing!!

Cheers,

Holbein81

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57
  ·  2 months ago

You've received an upvote from #TheUnmentionables - a SteemIt community full of members who like to kick ass, take names, and occasionally do it wearing (or forgetting to wear) our unmentionables...

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57
  ·  2 months ago

Terrific post about diabetes! @holbein81 I want to add three points that were not mentioned about Type 2 diabetes. First, it is hereditary so if your mother, father, brother or sister have Type 2 diabetes, start being proactive about your health sooner rather than later. Secondly, stress triggers Type 2 diabetes and you can be the healthiest, thinnest person around and get it. Drop too much stress onto certain people and that can be the catalyst that triggers the onset of diabetes. Not all obese people are diabetics just as many healthy weight, thin people are [diabetic]. Lastly, if a woman has gestational diabetes, she is almost 100% guaranteed to become a Type 2 diabetic at some point later in her life. There is new information about Type 3 diabetes as well. Type 3 diabetes is a title that has been proposed for Alzheimer's disease which results from resistance to insulin in the brain.

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58
  ·  2 months ago

Thanks @ninahaskin - all good points!

There is so much info on diabetes you could write a mini series with separate posts on causes, symptoms, treatment, complications etc

I kept this pretty high level as was almost trying to cover too much!

Cheers

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57
  ·  2 months ago

Your post about diabetes was terrific @holbein81 and I think you should create a mini diabetic series! I only wanted to mention a few things those who might be overwhelmed by a recent Type 2 diagnosis.
Cheers!💯

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58
  ·  2 months ago

Thanks! That's definitely something to consider - unless you want to do it? 😀

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57
  ·  2 months ago

I'd be willing to do a collaboration with you @holbein81

47
  ·  2 months ago

I do not apologize, there are cures for all dis-eases already and the thought or perspective that states that this is not true is only attempting to manipulate the mind of the people from not knowing this. I am not taking away from what one has stated, on the other hand I am adding too. Not with all the science, or doing my own blog on the facts to which I have stated. and maybe in due moments I will present information to the facts.

But it doesn't hurt to get other involved in looking at the many sources and ways there are to heal ones self. This is a fact-I healed my back with mostly thought alone.
#cof

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58
  ·  2 months ago

Hey, how are you doing?

Not sure I totally follow, but I think you are saying that cures have already been discovered for all diseases and then covered up rather than made available to the population - that right?

If so, I would disagree, but everyone’s entitled to hold their own view, no?

Cheers, thanks for commenting

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47
  ·  2 months ago

Yes that is what I am saying, and this is not my own view as the truth must go for everyone. So an opinion is not truth, it may lead to truth but it of its self is not ever truth. I have plenty of facts and I am walking proof that one can heal through vibrations and frequency. if you disagree then one has been brainwashed by the system one speaks of. I am tired of getting that sentence thrown in my face. If a scientist came on here and said this stuff was fact and has been fully tested would you listen then. I have proven this scientifically. You are right though you do not have to agree. But that is only due to you not taking a look into what I am saying before disagree which means if you do not fact check me out, out much do you do with the ones actually lying to you.. There is cures for all diseases this is a fact, not an opinion and the fact that you put ones facts into that position shows one is closed minded to facts. I am not here to make shit up. Or get credit as the truth for everyone is for everyone and no one human owns the truth do they.

But I guess I am making no sense here, and pharmaceuticals help you right, and chemo therapy doesn't not work 97% of the time, that last part was stated by a physician for over Twenty years. Cannabis cures brain cancer and you are telling me that there is no cover up. What place do you live in reality or your own small perspective bubble because the first is not the latter and vice versa.. Thank you for commenting back with out anger but ones statement I have heard from over a thousand people so one is definitely not original with your retort to truth.

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58
  ·  2 months ago

Hey, thanks for the long reply, and apologies now for my own long reply!

I am going to reply to the various parts of your post with my view and/or my questions. As I said - or if I didn’t I am saying now - I am not interested in getting into arguments on this stuff. Everyone is entitled to their opinion, as long as they don’t force it onto others, and life is too short. But I will ask questions, which you are free to answer or ignore…

I will never believe that there are already cures for all disease in the absence of definitive proof. You say it is a fact but I have never seen any proof of this - can you please share it

If you have cured yourself from something due to vibrations and frequency, then this is great - but this does not make you walking proof. This makes you a case study, and it may not work for the next person. The difference between evidence and anecdote is a critical scientific concept, and this is anecdote, not evidence. How have you proven it scientifically?

If a scientist said that it was scientifically proven I wouldn’t instantly believe it, I would want to read the paper for myself to see if the paper was scientifically sound. I would also ask the same of you if you say that it is scientifically proven. I am happy to look into what you are saying - if you have data and evidence then please share so that I can make my own judgement as to whether or not I believe it

I have never heard the statement that ‘chemotherapy doesn’t work 97% of the time’. My questions would be: Which chemotherapy? For which conditions? In which patient population? How strong is the evidence? etc etc. Can you point me in the direction of the data confirming this statement? I presume it must be a meta-analysis covering all chemotherapies for all types of cancer, which is a huge undertaking. As written, your sentence is very generic and I wouldn’t believe it without some proper scientific proof

‘Cannabis cures brain cancer’ - basically, the same questions as above - which cancer, can you please share the data?

As I said, I am not interested in getting into fights over this stuff, but I work in a very scientific environment where comments/claims such as the ones you have made need to be backed up with evidence

Cheers, hope you’re having a good weekend

Holbein81

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47
  ·  2 months ago

I completely agree, but when one is on the forefront of information as such, it is difficult to just show you all the evidence.

I do not have it all anymore and some of it has Actually been deleted.

Even the scientific community has become its own religion and only accepts certain truths and negates possibilities of the truth.

I used the scientific method as all scientist did. I have no evidence to the personal experiences I have witnessed, I have been able to with no evidence get someone to comprehend this and much more. This took two years of talking before the Awe Ha! moment happened.

To your questions, I can not show you all the facts as that is to many subjects and countless hours of research. Which mostly has been deleted about half the over three thousand videos I have watch on various subjects from basic knowledge and what would be considered the sense that get spoken of as common, to some of the most complex subjects to comprehend. This is not counting the articles I have read on various subjects. All this research I have done was fuel by one question.

What is the truth that must go for everyone period?

This means all opinions do not matter, as opinions are based in ones own perspective which is not reality, which reality is "what is" for everyone? Yes....or No...?

So opinions legitimately stands in the way of truth for all.

I have no opinion to such a subject. I do have experience in knowing though to that subject.
Like cancer..
Here is a link to the doctor talking about the chemo.

Here is a list of links to start one about the cannabis:

  • Cannabis Oil Cures Lung & Brain Cancer: The Stan Rutner Story (MORE at cureyourowncancer.org) Click here

  • Cannabis reduces tumor growth in study Click here

  • CBD, Cannabis and Breast Cancer Click here

  • Marijuana Chemical May Fight Brain Cancer(this article is from 2009 and that is why it has the word "May" in it) Click here

Here is some links on vibrational and mind healing:

  • Cure all illnesses using the power of your mind!( this is just a small part of this lecture on the hearts electromagnetic field and some of the things it actually does. I do recommend finding and watching the whole presentation it is very informative.) Click here

  • It Is Possible to Heal the Body with the Mind, and There Is Scientific Proof to This Click here

I also looked over all links before sending them to you, I do a very good job of finding the correct info in the pile of Propaganda, Half-Truths, Disinformation, Misinformation.
I hope this can get you started there is an overflowing level of information about this subject... You have an awesome weekend to!!

57
  ·  2 months ago

I never thought of sugar as a drug until I made the mistake of taking a glucose tablet. Basically a sugar pill. I felt like I had drunk about 4 beers, dizzy sick feeling. I thought that I had broken my body. It's 4 grams of Dextrose! Whoa nelly! @ironshield

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58
  ·  2 months ago

Haha, you used to be able to buy them as sweets in the UK - can’t remember the name tho

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  ·  2 months ago

It may still be a long way off but at least it is a step in the right direction, especially since my wife and other family members have it

54
  ·  2 months ago

It is definitely not an easy problem to live with but today technology does make it a little easier for people with diabetes.

A lot of my friends used the medicine from an Indian company called Himalaya. It helped a great deal and some of them even cured it all together. But, I don't know what type of diabetes they had. Maybe it is worth looking into it.

Great article my friend, well written. Upvote from me.

Have a great day. :)

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57
  ·  2 months ago

Interesting. I need to read more about this Himalaya medicine from India. There's a another one, made in Germany, called Jardiance that has impressive results and also prevents cardiovascular disease. Happy Thursday, Duro!

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58
  ·  2 months ago

Haven’t heard of Himalaya - but for sure it’s true that automation, implanted pumps etc are helping!

56
  ·  2 months ago

my grandmother also had it. Any step in the right direction is a good step.

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58
  ·  2 months ago

True dat

57
  ·  2 months ago

@holbein81... the picture of what you showed on what not to eat was right on. I have to remind myself that if my plate has mostly tan-colored foods, it's time to add green.

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58
  ·  2 months ago

Very true - I love chicken wings tho...

63
  ·  2 months ago

Extremely informative and useful post buddy. Loved reading it. Who on earth does not want a cure for Diabetes. Millions suffering from this and only hope we get a cure for this soon. Because once diabetes is under control other deseases also would take a back seat automatically. Upvoted , resteemed and following u as always.
Regards Nainaz
#thealliance

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58
  ·  2 months ago

Thanks Nainaz - hopefully everyone wants a cure!

53
  ·  2 months ago

Hey ..you..
Steem on steem..
That's a very informative post like diabetes
Thank's for sharing sir.
@followed and upvoted

62
  ·  2 months ago

Great post man!

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58
  ·  2 months ago

Thanks

48
  ·  2 months ago

VOTED!
ultimoooo...,ñ,ñ,.jpg

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58
  ·  2 months ago

Thank you. What’s with the picture btw? I think it has a typo - fallow?

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48
  ·  2 months ago

si en realidad decía "seguir" pero no se que la traducción -.-

67
  ·  2 months ago

Calling @originalworks :)
img credz: pixabay.com
Nice, you got a 14.0% @minnowbooster upgoat, thanks to @holbein81
Want a boost? Minnowbooster's got your back!

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60
  ·  2 months ago

The @OriginalWorks bot has determined this post by @holbein81 to be original material and upvoted(1.5%) it!

ezgif.com-resize.gif

To call @OriginalWorks, simply reply to any post with @originalworks or !originalworks in your message!

61
  ·  2 months ago

Great post, I agree with you. I will followed you, I hope you want followed me too

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58
  ·  2 months ago

Thank you for commenting

40
  ·  2 months ago

Wow, this post is very helpful and Valuable!!! Your Post is Great!

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58
  ·  2 months ago

Thank you for commenting

54
  ·  2 months ago

very informative as now a days diabetes is growing in our society mostly because of our lifestyles

66
  ·  2 months ago

This post received a 3.1% upvote from @randowhale thanks to @holbein81! For more information, click here!

33
  ·  2 months ago

There is a docu series, and webinar series i have been watching called 'The Sacred Plant'. some of the research and information presented in that would be beneficial to this